Vanadium Element number 23 V

Pure Vanadium pellets with a dull layer of oxide.

 V 23 metal  AW:50.9415,   MP:3470,  BP:6165,  D:6.0,  Mohs:6.7

Vanadium is a hard  metal  that can be found in a few minerals and also some fossil fuels. Vanadium has a few important commercial uses.

As a alloy Vanadium can be found in commercial steel and Titanium. Vanadium will increase the hardness and resistance of steel, and can form  important alloys. High carbon steels and high speed cutting steels. Ferrovanadium is used to make these alloys. they are employed in cutting tools and also parts such as crankshafts and bikes. In nuclear power plants Vanadium helps prevent certain distortions steel undergoes under heavy weight.

Vanadium has a an important compound as well, Vanadium pentoxide is used to produce Sulfuric acid, and in ceramics.

Vanadium can be found in some life forms such as sea squirts and fungus possibly as a defense system. Vanadium also is a pollutant, as  byproduct of fossil fuel exhausts.

This chunk of Ferrovanadium has a pretty crystalline structure. The Vanadium content is 86%

 This 54 gram cylinder is 99.99% pure Vanadium. sadly it has some corrosion but still valuable as a sample

Vanadinite cluster Arizona, Vanadium crystals pure

Chromium Element Number 24 Cr 

 Pure Chromium chunks with pretty crystalline structures.

Cr 24 metal  AW: 51.9961,  MP:3465,  BP:4840,  D:7.19,  Mohs:8.5 

 Chromium is a  silvery white metal with remarkable hardness. The name chromium is derived from Greek for color. Most of Chromium compounds have fantastic colors. The metal has a few nice traits that make it useful, such as the oxide layers that prevent further oxidation. Chromium is the 21st most abundant element in the crust of the earth.

Chromium compounds have been used as pigment colorants, "school bus yellow" is made with Cr compound. And in China Chromium Oxide was used 2000 years ago on items found with the  statues of the terracotta army. Chromium is used as a attractive  coating to keep parts from rusting or oxidizing, such as bumpers and exhaust pipes.

In humans Chromium is possibly needed as a trace element, but Cr can also be formed into toxic compounds, CCA or Chromium Copper Arsenate is used to pressure treat lumber and is toxic to fungus and insects. Other compounds are used in dyes, tanning, magnetic audio tape, catalysts to name a few.

Alloys of Chromium like Stainless steel and  Inconel have important uses. Chromium is very important coating for other metals, and anodizing of  Aluminum utilizes Chromic acid in its process.

Chromium has a 3 stable isotopes and 19 radio isotopes, and notable is a use in research of stellar nucleosynthesis elements and the origins of the solar system.


This large disc is pure Chromium, it weighs 4 pounds, and is used as a sputtering target for thin coatings. the disc is still in protective packaging under Argon.